In recent years, RFID technology has continued to penetrate into the library field. However, the traditional book management model (barcode management + EAS anti-theft) in the process of evolution to RFID, the library community generally has doubts that RFID has obvious advantages in replacing barcode management, but there is still much room for improvement in book theft prevention. This paper first gives a brief overview of the traditional EAS anti-theft, and then discusses the anti-theft model of RFID libraries starting from the analysis of the anti-theft needs of RFID libraries, in order to promote the development of RFID libraries and meet the anti-theft needs of RFID libraries in the actual business.
1. Traditional library EAS anti-theft system
Table of Contents
- 1. Traditional library EAS anti-theft system
- 2. RFID library management requirements for theft prevention
- 3. RFID library anti-theft model
- 4. Summary
It originated in the U.S. in the 1960s as a result of serious theft in the retail industry. It is a high-tech electronic anti-theft device. It is a high-tech means to give goods a self-defense ability, which can effectively protect goods and prevent theft of goods. In foreign countries, EAS systems are used in 90% of the retail industry to reduce the theft rate. In China, EAS systems are also gradually accepted and adopted by the majority of merchants. So far, the majority of merchants believe that the widespread use of EAS systems are high-tech management tools to reduce theft and reduce losses.
EAS theft deterrent device many types, but the basic principle of work is the same, that is, a special signal can be generated by the tag placed on the protected items, the library’s exit to install a set of antennas capable of detecting the tag signal, when the item through the exit, the antenna detects the tag signal that the alarm, if the item is allowed to pass, the source of the signal generated within the tag will be lifted in advance, so that the item through the antenna will not trigger the alarm. According to the different signal characteristics of the tag, EAS anti-theft systems can be divided into electromagnetic systems, radio systems, acoustic magnetic systems, etc.. Now the different systems are divided into their own principles.
1.1 Electromagnetic system
Electromagnetic wave system uses electromagnetic waves as the detection signal, it is about the same time as the radio frequency system, has a history of more than 30 years. The detection rate of electromagnetic wave system is high. But the system is susceptible to magnetic or metallic substances and false alarms or not. The advantage is that the label is small, concealed, and the label is cheap, can repeat demagnetization, suitable for the protection of specific products such as books. Electromagnetic wave system has two kinds of vertical and channel type, and the exit width is generally about 0.9 meters. Application environment is mostly in libraries, libraries, audio-visual stores, etc.
1.2 Radio system
Radio frequency system has been introduced for more than 30 years, is one of the early application of electronic security system. It uses radio frequency as the system transmitting and receiving detection signal, the detection frequency range is generally 7.5-8.5MHz. the detection rate of radio frequency system is generally about 80%. As its anti-theft tag for the ring coil type, so many and tag frequency similar coil items or electronic products will trigger the system, causing the system false alarm. And radio frequency system is completely shielded by the metal tin foil, anti-theft tags close to or pasted on the metal tin foil will make the tags fail, causing the system to miss the alarm. Radio frequency system advantage is that the system cost is very low. Radio frequency system has two kinds of tags, soft and hard, which can protect most of the items in the mall. The distance between two supports generally cannot be greater than 1.2 meters.
1.3 Acoustic magnetic system
The tuning fork causes resonance only when the oscillation frequency is the same. It is this physical principle that the acoustic magnetic system applies to achieve almost zero false alarm operation. An acoustic magnetic system tag fixed to a commodity resonates when it enters the detection area of the system, but only after the receiver receives four consecutive resonance signals (once every 1/50th of a second) does the system sound an alarm.
The characteristics of the acoustic magnetic system are high anti-theft detection rate, almost zero false alarms, not shielded by metal tin foil, good anti-interference, wide outlet protection (a single set of systems can protect 4 meters wide). Acoustic magnetic system has two kinds of anti-theft tags, soft and hard, to protect most kinds of goods in the mall, but the tag size is relatively large, the price is higher. Acoustic magnetic systems include different types of vertical systems, channel systems and concealed systems, with more than 10 models to choose from, mainly used in department stores, supermarkets, specialty stores, video stores, grocery stores, pharmacies, but also available in office buildings and other environments. Acoustic magnetic system is anti-theft technology.
1.4 Comparison of electromagnetic systems, radio systems and acoustic-magnetic systems
Among the above systems, the electromagnetic system, because of the use of magnetic strips at a lower price, greatly reducing the user’s investment in consumables, and the magnetic strips are thin and small, can be easily and quickly inactivated and activated, more concealed, and can be repeatedly charged and demagnetized. Effective against theft and affordable for every library budget, so it is commonly used in libraries and libraries. The installation of electromagnetic systems does not affect the operation of the library and reduces the loss of books in storage by more than 95%. Radio system has the advantage of compact gantries and low cost, but it cannot achieve cycle inactivation and activation, and the tag is poorly concealed inside the book, so it is less used in libraries than the electromagnetic system. Acoustic magnetic system has a good appearance, the false alarm rate, the width of the gantry spacing, the tag can also be recycled, but the tag has a certain thickness, poor concealment in the book, so it is generally used for store anti-theft.
2. RFID library management requirements for theft prevention
No one doubts that RFID in the near future will fully replace the (bar code + EAS anti-theft) basic management model, but in the reality of the transition period, RFID industry players need to understand the expectations and requirements of libraries to greatly reduce this transition period.
2.1 Price requirements for RFID systems
The current price of RFID (barcode + EAS anti-theft) system price of tens to hundreds of times, and hope that with the development of the RFID industry, this price can soon fall.
2.2 Requirements for the anti-theft function of RFID systems
In theory, RFID technology has the inherent ability to prevent theft, but because of its tag appearance and radio-style EAS tags consistent with the 3 × 3cm or 4 × 4cm sheet, the poor concealment in the book, thus affecting the anti-theft effect. The industry has now developed a thin strip of RFID antenna tags, the appearance of the magnetic strip is no different, but due to the shape of the antenna, the sensitivity of long-distance reading and writing does not reach the effect of traditional EAS, the same impact on theft prevention. The solution to these problems is pending the continuous improvement of RFID technology.
2.3 Requirements for the appearance of RFID access control
The appearance of the traditional EAS varied to meet the needs of a variety of library customers, while the appearance of RFID access control is still relatively single, pending the continued efforts of developers.
2.4 Requirements for smooth transition between old and new technologies
Even without considering the expensive price of RFID during the transition period, if a large library completely from the traditional technology to a comprehensive RFID management, the library’s workload will be very huge, so the RFID master device and accessories can be compatible at the same time (bar code + EAS anti-theft) management model seems very necessary, in fact, the technical difficulties are not great. Foreign practice has done this very well. Domestic counterparts are beginning to follow, and hopefully the better.
3. RFID library anti-theft model
Libraries originally used mostly magnetic strips for anti-theft, and a small number of libraries use active EAS tags. Libraries introduced RFID technology to make the library anti-theft system in the way to change, there is currently a part of the user to achieve the management of simple RFID tags – anti-theft, RFID tags anti-theft function generally through the tag stored in the erasable security bits to achieve. And magnetic stripe anti-theft did not withdraw due to the emergence of RFID, on the one hand, some libraries need to continue the original library-wide unified anti-theft system pattern; on the other hand, in the social environment and RFID anti-theft effect is not too sure, the magnetic stripe to still retain a place, with RFID tags (RFID quality label warranty of 10 years was 100,000 times read and write) compared to the magnetic stripe has a relatively hidden, the Can be used and other characteristics.
Various RFID supplier’s system design concept is different, its anti-theft mode, front-end software is also therefore different. RFID library actual application of anti-theft mode integrated mainly the following five kinds: (1) Magnetic stripe anti-theft; (2) RFID-EAS-TTF security bit detection; (3) RFID tag security bit anti-theft; (4) Database state verification detection anti-theft; (5) Access control UID detection anti-theft.
3.1 Magnetic stripe anti-theft
The system design idea is to maintain the original magnetic stripe security access control system remains unchanged, the addition of RFID tags to achieve self-service circulation, rack area management. The advantage of magnetic stripe anti-theft is hidden, long life. Magnetic stripe security access control has nothing to do with the network as well as the system, the alarm does not provide any problem collection information, and the door frame can not be used for RFID other detection statistics.
3.2 RFID-EAS-TTF security bit detection
Tags contain erasable EAS security bits, the collection after borrowing / returning operations, EAS security bits are written to the corresponding state information, readers with books through the door access, no borrowing procedures for the collection (tags) take the initiative to send information to the anti-theft door frame, resulting in the alarm. Its characteristics are tags take TTF tag first speaking mode, tag power on, access control antenna for tag group detection, no need to do hibernation on the tag – wake up, pay attention to completely read the user stored information in the tag chip, this approach is similar to the mechanism of magnetic stripe detection, the manufacturer said the detection efficiency of up to 95%, its typical example is PHILIPS I-CODE-II chip. Its anti-theft access control with the network as well as the system is not related to the alarm does not provide any information about the problem collection, and the door frame can not be used for RFID other detection statistics.
3.3 RFID tag security bit anti-theft
Tags contain erasable security bits, the collection after borrowing / return operations, security bits are written to the corresponding state information, readers with books through the door access, the collection (tags) after the anti-theft door frame do dormant – wake up one by one reading screening, no borrowing procedures for the collection (tags) will lead to the door frame alarm. According to theoretical speculation, the detection efficiency of such systems is a little lower than the RFID-EAS-TTF model. Its anti-theft access control is independent of the network as well as the system, the alarm provides (or not) any problematic collection information, and the door frame can be used for other detection statistics of RFID.
3.4 Database state verification detection of anti-theft
That is, readers borrowing the collection in the security door frame to use the database to check the borrowed / unborrowed status one by one, if not for borrowing procedures, then the alarm, the method of theft prevention requires more steps, and strong reliance on the network and database, so it is a less efficient way to prevent theft. Its anti-theft access control is related to the network as well as the system, the alarm provides information about the problem collection, and the door frame can be used for other detection statistics of RFID.
3.5 Access control UID detection anti-theft
All collections for borrowing/returning procedures, the front-end RFID system will be its tag UID information to broadcast through the network to all the access control terminal database (or withdraw from it), readers with collections through the access control, access control one by one each piece of collection UID and access control inventory information to compare, if found that a piece of collection information can not be found when the alarm. Its anti-theft access control is related to the network as well as the system, which is more dependent on the alarm to provide information about the collection in question, and the door frame can be used for other detection statistics of RFID.
Each of the above five anti-theft modes has its own characteristics, and the specific choice needs to be determined according to the specific needs.
In the transition period of traditional book management mode to RFID technology, it is necessary for the library industry and RFID industry to strengthen mutual communication and understand each other’s needs and the characteristics of the new technology in order to shorten the transition period. Moreover, the actual needs of the library should be determined according to the actual needs of the library to determine the anti-theft mode of the library, so as to select good anti-theft equipment to ensure that the anti-theft function of the library can be achieved, and to achieve a smooth transition of the library.
Source: China RFID System Manufacturer – Actility Technologies Company Limited (www.tractility.com)